In May, 1940, after the outbreak of the Second World War, Winston Churchill became Prime Minister and Minister of Defense and remained in office until 1945. During this time, he worked to develop a military strategy that would ensure Hitler's defeat
Mr.Abe will set up a government task force to resolve the issue of abductions of Japanese nationals by North Korea.（Very good!!） Mr.Abe will also step up efforts toward United Nations reform, with an eye toward gaining Japan a permanent seat on the U.N. Security Council.（More than 60 years have passsed. It is too late to hope for the seat. Is it worth while aspiring to? Question Mark to the U.N. itself.)
大東亜戦争とスターリンの謀略―戦争と共産主義 三田村 武夫著 NET上で随分語られているこの本。こちらのサイトで紹介されていたので（「歴史道楽」）リンクさせていただきました。 この本のことはこのペイジの105番をクリックしてください 同じ本でも読み手によってさまざまな解釈が可能かもしれない。できれば、お読みになった方々の感想など、お寄せいただけたら嬉しいのですが・・・ 参照：SPY SORGE: MOVIE by MASAHIRO SHINODA (I myself have not seen this film yet. I don't know on what point of view this was made by him.)
途方もない資料の山に圧倒されて、視力と体力の限界が来て、一休みしたいと思ったのだけれど、例のTOP SECRETを見つけて引き返してしまった。 Pearl Harbor こちらにそのTOP SECRETとRadio Address Delivered by President Roosevelt を並べてみた。Rooseveltのこの2重人格さはどこから来るのだろう。アメリカの普通の人はどういう歴史を学んでいるのだろう。と思い、本棚から少し古いSAT用の「American History and Social Stadies」（Barron's出版）を取り出して、ヤルタ会談を開けてみた。
1945(February)-The Yalta Conference in the Crimea found Roosevelt, Churchill,and Stalin considering plans to attempt a quick end to the war they were obviously winning. Russia promised to set up a front against Japan, a pledge which Roosevelt thought, by having Russia share the burden of attack, would save a great many American lives. The three powers agreed to see that the liberated states had representative governments chosen by free elections. The date was set for the San Francisco Conference on April 25.1945. The Yalta Conference has long been a controversial issue in America. The Russians did set up a front in Manchuria and occupy northern Korea as agreed at Yalta, but the atomic bomb made the presence of Russian forces unnecessary for victory. Stalin broke his promise to promote, or at least allow, free elections and representative government in the nations adjacent to the Soviet Union. At the time, Roosevelt was especially pleased with the Yalta meeting because he had a definite pledge of help against Japan and definite assurance that Russia would attend the San Francisco meeting to help form the United Nations. ヤルタ会談はアメリカでも問題あり。やっぱり勝手な分け前相談に気が引けるのかと、思ったら違った。振り返ると原爆を落とせたのだから、ソ連などの力を借りる必要はなかったのだと悔やんでいるらしい。原爆投下の人道に関する罪など、欠片もない。なにこれ。ソ連の参戦の最後に書いた言葉を思い出していただきたい。続いて 1945(April to June)- The San Francisco Conference, which drew up the United Nations charter, was attended by delegates from 50 nations. The main organs of the United Nations were(...) San Franciscoで国際連合憲章が調印された。軍事参謀委員会があり、共同制裁行動のために武力の行使が認められている。こんな状況でできた国際連合、初めから国際連盟ほどの理念が理想がどうも感じられない。 そこへ「正論」10月号の以下の記事が目に入った。
After 13 years of exile in Tanzania, Alphonse’s family came back home, in other words, where they had a house once upon time, in Burundi. Alphonse left his native country when he was one year old. Burundi was an imaginary country, a country of dream. ALPHONSE RETURNS ・・・・・・・・・・・・ ////////////////////////
Please Read, ** Difficulties in accepting these definitions ：FROM Thanks to this page ・・・・・・・・・・ We must remember that the USSR and the Netherlands are some of the prosecuting nations in this case and both declared war against Japan first. So far as the USSR is concerned, even if self-defense be taken as admitting of initiation of war under certain conditions, the circumstances in which that state declared war against Japan would hardly justify it as war necessitated by any consideration of defense. It would perhaps be difficult to read "an instant and overwhelming necessity for self-defense, leaving no choice of means, and no moment of deliberation" in a war against already defeated Japan.
The USSR declared war against Japan on 8th August 1945. The Potsdam Declaration demanding unconditional surrender of Japan was issued on July 26, 1945. Japan had requested the Soviet Union to mediate in the early part of June 1945, and ultimately offered to surrender on August 10, 1945.
Senator Hickenlooper. Question No.5: Isn't your proposal for sea and air blockade of Red China the same strategy by which Americans achieved victory over the Japanese in the Pacific?
General Macarthur: Yes,sir. In the Pacific we bypassed them. We closed in. You must understand that Japan had an enormous population of nearly 80 million people, crowded into 4 islands. It was about half a farm population. The other half was engaged in industry. Potentially the labor pool in Japan , both in quantity and quality ,is as good as anthing that I have ever known. Some place down the line they have discovered what you might call the dignity of labor, that men are happier when they are working and constructing than when they are idling. This enormous capacity for work meant that they had to have something to work on. They built the factories, they had the labor, but they didn't have the basic materials. There is practically nothing indigenous to Japan except the silkworm. They lack cotton,they lack wool, they lack petroleum products, they lack tin, they lack rubber, they lack a great many other things, all of which was in the Asiatic basin. They feared that if those supplies were cut off, there would be 10 to 20 million people unoccupied in Japan. Their purpose, therefore, in going to war was largely dictated by security. 彼らが戦争に飛び込んでいった動機は、大部分が安全保障の必要から出たのであります。
上の引用文の真の意味は下の引用によって明らかにされる。 Please Read, Self-defense is the only justification of war & The right of self-defense ：FROM Thanks to this page ・・・・・・・・・・ To deprive a nation of those necessary commodities which enable its citizens and subjects exist is surely a method of warfare not dissimilar to the violent taking of lives through explosives and force because it reduces opposition by delayed action resulting in defeat just as surely as through other means of conventional hostilities. It can even be said to be of a more drastic nature than the blasting to life by physical force, for it aims at the slow depletion of the morale and well being of the entire civilian population through the medium of slow starvation. 国家及び国民が生存するに必要な物資の流通を阻止することは、武力を持って戦闘行為に及ぶことに等しい、いやむしろより惨いと言うべきだ。 ABCD包囲網に対してあるいはハルノートに対して日本の選び取った行動は、侵略行為ではなく、生存権の防衛と解釈されうる。言われてみると、そうだ、自明のことだ。 自明のことを自明のこととして解釈できるのが真の国際法学者なのだ。日本にとって、列強が突きつけたものは、単なるいわゆる経済制裁などというやわいものではなく、まさに生存権の剥奪と解釈されるに充分な、息の根を止めるに等しいものだった。事実息の根を止めようとしたのだ。譲歩に譲歩を重ね、どれだけ戦争を回避する努力を日本はしたことか。思い出していただきたい。
言われていたような企みが、元々なかったとしたら、陸軍自身、事前通報など、そもそもしようがないのではないのか。柳条湖事件は、本当に突発的な事件だったのではないか。あるいは逆に嵌められたものではないか。 I am mentioning this at this stage not to say which side was right and which wrong. I am simply pointing out, in support of the hypothesis advanced by the Japanese that Mukden incident was engineered by the Chinese, that even by the absence of military preparedness on the part of China the hypothesis is not altogether excluded. （Pal判事もこう記している）さらに Further, if we are to build on this apparent military preparedness of the Japanese side, we must not ignore any possible preparedness on the Chinese side in some other respects. Preparedness, after all, depends upon what the party may be preparing for. The Chinese side might have been conscious of their relative weakness in military strength and therefore instead of counting upon their own military recourse, might have counted upon international intervention for the solution of their Japanese difficulties in Manchuria. They might not have been inadequately prepared for securing such international intervention.（Pal判事はこうも記している） この衝突は日本軍が戦闘行為拡大の口実に引き起こした、と一般にはされてきたが、ならば、逆に武力に劣る中国側が国際連盟に泣きつくための口実にすることも出来た衝突だった、という見解も成り立つと言うことだ。結果から見れば、後者が成功して、日本は孤立していったのだった。 ////////////////////// PAL判事のことを知らなかった方は以下のリンクをご覧ください。 ラダ・ビノード・パール Radhabinod Pal ・・・・・・・・ 闇の夜を照らすひかりのふみ仰ぎ こころ安けく逝くぞうれ志き 東京裁判で絞首刑になった木村兵太郎が、PALに感激して詠んだ歌である /////////////////////////////
Japan wants no war. She seeks to prevent the development of war. Her actions in Manchuria have been taken with this object in view, and therefore in conformity with the purpose of the League of Nations. It is because there is in Europe and America so little understanding of Japan and China, and their relations with Russia, that the Western World has permitted itself to be misled with regard to the policies of my country. These policies, the disordered condition of China,and the potentialities with regard to the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, I have endeavoured to explain.
With regard to the U.S.S.R. there are two trends of thought in Japan at the present moment. One is that that country is a menace to Japan, because of efforts to spread Sovietism over the Far East and because of the militaly development within the Soviet Union. Those Japanese who are anxious over this combined development and propaganda think that our country should strike at the U.S.S.R. before the potential menace fully materializes. The other opinion is that the issues conflicting between the two countries can be peacefully settled by means of diplomacy. The writer shares this latter view.
The Mukden Incident：柳条湖事件 by Radhabinod Pal (India) I am saying this only to show the difficulty in drawing any conclusion against Japan from the mere circumstance of her relative preparedness. 日本の戦闘行為が迅速だったからという理由で、日本側が仕掛けた行為だと言う証拠にはならない。結局それだけが証拠だったのか。 それにしてもPal判事の文章を読んで大変感動した。松岡が国際連盟で述べたことと、その視点と非常に類似しる。松岡の文章かと、勘違いするくらいに。 The military operations of the Japanese troops during this night, which have been described above, cannot be regarded as measures of legitimate self-defense. In saying this, the Commission does not exclude the hypothesis that the officers on the spot may have thought they were acting in self-defense." この部分は特に松岡の連盟での指摘と同じである。
The Manchurian Incident and self-defense I am however inclined to the view that there existed sufficient objective condition so as to entitle Japan to plead that she bona fide decided upon this measure as necessitated by self-defense, and consequently, even if I could accept the view that aggressive war became crime in international law at the date of the Manchurian Incident I would not have held this to be such an aggressive war at all. ここで感動は極限に達した。日本人全員がこのPal判事の文章を暗記するほど読むべきだと思う。
The attitude of the League If Japan had yielded to intimidation and withdrawn her troops, Manchuria would have been delivered over to a more horrible state of anarchy and misrule even than before." The League had no means to step in and restore order in Manchuria. The League equally had no means to guarantee security to the Japanese Force. この部分も松岡が連盟で訴えたポイントと同じだ。
Then click「WATCH TV」、and Click 1,2,3,4,5,6, You will be able to see the outline of The Cultural Revolution ///////////// Click here. And Click 「Smash The Old World」 You will be able to see a lot of photos of 「The Cultural Revolution」
I am happy to introduce you; An Article by Yosuke Naito 30 years after Mao'death: a post stamp